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SAMSUNG(三星公司)-AMOLED技术介绍(英文版)

小胡讲触控技术2021-06-08 06:53:26

Introduction

  • Display Category

  •  OLED vs. LCD

  •  AMOLED vs. PMOLED

  •  Top Emission vs. Bottom Emission

  •  AMOLED Device

  •  Operation of AMOLED

  •  Structure of AMOLED


Display category by light source

OLED vs. LCD

Light 

source 

BLU with white light

Organic layers emit R,G,B colors

Color 

source

C/F makes R,G,B colors from BLU’s white light

Grays

Liquid crystal controls amount of light

Amount of current controls luminescence


AMOLED vs. PMOLED (1)

Substrate 

ITO patterning only

Circuit on Glass with LTPS process 

Evaporation

Evaporation process is fundamentally the same 

PMOLED uses smaller substrate and its processes have lower pixel density than AMOLED

Cost

Small investment and simple process

    Low manufacturing cost

Intensive investment and complicated process    High manufacturing cost


AMOLED vs. PMOLED (2)

PMOLED Driving

AMOLED Driving

Top Emission vs. Bottom Emission

        t requires more advanced process technology and know-how to produce top emission AMOLED than bottom emission AMOLED. 

SMD’s AMOLED Technology

SMD’s AMOLED Technology is based on

  • Color Patterning   : R,G,B individually evaporated

  • Emission type       : Top emission

  • Backplane             : LTPS


AMOLED Device (1)

    Basic Operation Mechanism

    OLED device consists of several functional sub-layers. 

    Holes from Anode and Electrons from Cathode meet at EML and form Excitons which radiate light.

    The color is determined by the EML layer.


    AMOLED Device (2)

    Characteristics of OLED



    The Electric Model of OLED consists of Diode + Capacitor

    Electrical characteristic of OLED is similar to diode in forward bias condition

    The luminance intensities are proportional to the current Intensities

    Structure of AMOLED

    Features of AMOLED

    • Wide Color Gamut

    •  High Contrast

    •  Image Quality

    •  Fast Response Time

    •  Thin Form Factor

    Features of AMOLED

    Wide Color Gamut

        Color gamut of TFT-LCD drops by changes in gray levels. 

         In AMOLED, color gamut maintains over 100% color gamut regardless of  the change in gray scale.

    High Contrast

    ■ TFT-LCD’s contrast ratio drops with change in viewing angle

       - In AMOLED, measuring viewing angle is not necessary.

    Superior Image Quality

    ■ AMOLED is perceived to be about  100 ~ 150cd/m2 brighter than TFT-LCD

    Ref) Perceived Brightness … HK Effect

            HK Effect states that a display with wider color gamut appears to be brighter

         than a display with smaller color gamut

    Ref) Perceived Brightness … BB Effect

    ■ In addition, AMOLED is perceived to be brighter than TFT-LCD due to its higher  contrast*

    ■ “Bartleson-Breneman Effect”: An optical illusion of perceived contrast appears when image is viewed against a light or dark background.

    Outdoor Readability

      High C/R & Large Color Gamut  Superior Outdoor Readability

    Evaluation of Outdoor Readability

    500cd/m2 OLED ranked as the best of all displays in outdoor readability.

    Evaluation condition

        -. Outdoor lighting brightness : 35,000 lx

        -. Total number of observers : n = 22


     Scoring method

        -. Observers ranked the display in order to performance and select best 3 displays. 

        -. 1st  ranked display got 3 points, 2nd ranked display got 2 points, 3rd ranked display got 1 point.

    Fast Response Time

    Response time of TFT-LCD changes with change in temperature.

     In AMOLED, measuring response time is not necessary.


    Wide Viewing Angle

    AMOLED is almost independent on the viewing angle.

    ◆ AMOLED’s superior contrast ratio does not diminish depending on the viewing angle.

    Thin Form Factor (1)

    AMOLED’s thin and lean module structure allows significant edge in product design.

    Thin Form Factor (2)

    * The value of thickness depends on the mechanical reliance and size, etc….

    Zero Audible Noise

    Eco Display


    Structure of AMOLED

    • Module Structure

    •  Pixel Array

    •  Scan Driver

    •  Drive IC

    •  DCDC IC

    AMOLED Conceptual Structure

    Pixel Array

    Scan Drive on Panel

    Driver IC

    AMOLED’s driver IC has same function as TFT-LCD’s except for R,G,B independent gamma generators

    DC-DC Converter IC

    DC-DC converter generates ELVDD and ELVSS for AMOLED panel    

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