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领先世界!不得不说的瑞典高铁

最瑞典2019-10-15 06:33:14


@最瑞典                                ▲FollowLOCALSWEDE

如今,在中国和日本的高铁已经蜚声海内外,不断拿下各种大订单,大量占据国际市场之时,瑞典作为目前世界上少数掌握高速铁路技术的国家,一直非常低调,但是瑞典完全自主化的高铁技术一直领先世界。


「瑞典铁路网」


那么,我们先一起去了解瑞典的铁路

瑞典铁路
瑞典第一条用于公共交通的准轨铁路于1856年3月5日开通运营。到1938年,瑞典的铁路长度已达16886公里。20世纪50年代后期,瑞典铁路实现了国有化。最高海拔铁路为海平面以上601米的斯图利恩边境线,最低为海平面以下8米的赫尔辛堡隧道。国家铁路干线系统开始全面建设的目标是将全国主要城市、港口联结起来。当时还建设许多私人铁路作为内河(湖泊)运输系统的一部分,将矿石从矿区运到高炉,或将矿产品从工厂运到港口。后来森林工业发展起来,林产品成为一种主要运输产品通过铁路运到各地。因此私人铁路发展也很快,它们都是从干线往内地延伸。目前的内陆线,乡村线当时均为私人铁路。

瑞典铁路路网主要由4种类型线路组成:

  (1)六大干线,分别是西部干线、南部干线、北部干线、东海岸线、东北部干线和上诺尔兰干线,形成瑞典铁路的核心;

  (2)支线和县级线路,由地方运输管理局经营,提供客运服务;

  (3)通勤线,县级线路中使用率低的线路转为当地的通勤线;

  (4)两条特殊的铁路线,一条是北部的矿石专用线,另一条是从穆拉至耶利瓦勒长1053公里的铁路线,二者均独立经营。


图片:4rail.net

瑞典从20世纪90年代以来一直致力于铁路既有线提速。1992年,瑞典对斯德哥尔摩—哥德堡间全长453公里的铁路干线(西部干线)进行了提速改造,使列车最高运行速度达到200公里/小时,旅行时间缩短到3小时以内。1995年初,斯德哥尔摩—马尔默全线(南部干线)开始改造,其中个别区段需要限速。1997年,该线线路升级改造工程完工,旅客列车运行速度达到200公里/小时,旅行时间缩短到4小时以内,货物列车最高运行速度达到120公里/小时。另外,东海岸线和北部干线的最高运行速度也能达到200公里/小时。


马尔默火车站

瑞典高铁


「瑞典高速铁路网」


瑞典高速铁路的技术特点是利用既有线加以适当的改造(包括信号系统、平交道口、接触网及站场),并采用X2000型高速摆式列车在曲线区段将列车通过速度提高30%~40%,最高速度达到200km/h,而又不超过最大的允许轨道作用力;同时由于车体倾摆抵消了旅客所感受到的全部离心力的70%,使旅客感到较舒适,而整个旅行时间可以大大缩短。这是用机车车辆的高性能来适应线路的要求,从而达到高速运行的一种模式。
由于在既有线上运营X2000型高速摆式列车,必然与普通客车及货物列车共线运行,因此,实现这种模式的首要条件是线路上运量不大,能力比较充裕,不至于因为开行了高速列车而增加了扣除系数,影响其他旅客列车及货物列车的开行。另外线路必须具备较好的条件,轨道结构比较坚固,小半径曲线不多,更重要的是曲线区段的缓和曲线长度必须足够,否则将因过短的缓和曲线长度,造成摆式车体倾摆时过渡时间太短,摆动角度无法到位,达不到抵消旅客感受到的离心力的目的。
目前瑞典铁路采用X2000型高速摆式列车速度达到200km/h,日后再发展到250km/h。与其他国家(如法国、德国、日本)的高速列车相比,瑞典将X2000型摆式列车系统称为快速列车。它的特点是预留速度再提高到250km/h (X2000最高试验速度为276km/h)的可能性,而且与普通货物列车共线运行在传统的线路上,保持较低的线路养护维修费用。


X2000在中国的运用

1996年11月,广铁集团向瑞典 ADTranz 租用一列X2000,租期两年,以提高广深线上的列车服务质量和运行速度,同时也尝试最短时间掌握到X2000的摆式技术,及探究摆式列车在中国的可行性。列车于 1998年初运抵天津,被命名为“新时速”。与在瑞典的 X2000 列车相比较, 这列车的编组与有所变化,除了涂装以外,中国版的列车上并没有配置餐车,列车编组为一动 6 拖;而且采用的工作电压为 25kv。列车到达后就被送往北京环铁进行试跑。同年8月,列车在广深铁路开始了为期约10天的正线试验运行,试验完毕后,随即在当月展开商业运营。担负广州,深圳和九龙的客运服务。租期届满后 ,广深铁路把整组X2000买下,并继续为广深九线服务至2007年。 X2000在广深线上运行期间,除了香港的KTT列车以外,曾是内地铁路线上运行等级最高的客运列车;其商业运营速度和技术含量也是最高的。当时也有不少乘客为了能享受这些高等级的服务和享受,出门时还特地挑选这列车来乘坐。当然也有不少外地火车迷特地到广州或者深圳来感受这列全国独一无二的列车。纵使当时广深线上还有8组国产 “蓝箭”动车组配合其运行,但其独特的地位一直没有被削弱。

后来,因为广深线上的信号改造和升级, X2000 的车载信号系统已经不能与新线路信号系统相兼容,再加上那时刚好是 CRH1型动车组在广深线上的开始大规模的使用,X2000 列车最终被停运,并搁置在车库内,不久就接到命令调往成都铁路局。列车在2007年9月运抵重庆,并预计在同年的11月投入成渝线的客运服务,但是后来列车却迟迟未上线运营。有消息指是后来因为当地的工作人员违规操作造成列车车辆轮对损坏,而成局无力对其进行维修;列车的再上线运行的计划即被搁置。 2008年5月的汶川大地震导致成都铁路局管内发生多处塌方,急需修复,这更使成局无望对列车进行维修保养,而最终要退还予广深铁路。

经历了一年多的异地搁置后,X2000列车最终在 2008 年 12 月 21 日被运返广州,先后被存放在车辆段及广深动车运用库直到2012年5月。同年的5月27日,X2000在广州黄埔港起吊上船被瑞典国铁(SJ)以4500万人民币返购回国,并计划对这列编号为2088的列车进行全面的大修翻新后继续投入服务。(51crh.com)

“超级高铁”连接芬兰和瑞典

        据英国《每日邮报》2016年7月6日报道,Hyperloop One公司计划,将在欧洲建成世界首架规模完备的“超级高铁”(Hyperloop),连接芬兰首都赫尔辛基和瑞典首都斯德哥尔摩,速度可达每小时700英里(约合1126公里/时)。赫尔辛基和斯德哥尔摩相距310英里(约合500公里),乘飞机需要1小时,乘船则需要16小时才可到达。超级高铁建成后,可以将往返时间缩短至28分钟。

  Hyperloop One预计,尽管项目花费巨大,超级高铁建成后每年可以通过缩短通勤时间节省2.73亿英镑(约合24亿元人民币)的费用。高铁网络预计每年可运送乘客4300万人次,创造8.53亿英镑(约合74亿元人民币)的年收入。

  同时,公司还提议建立通往赫尔辛基和斯德哥尔摩机场、瑞典城市乌普萨拉(Uppsala)的多条超级高铁路线。公司在声明中表示:“从市中心通往两个城市机场的路程将缩短至10分钟。这一工程将把区域内超过500万人纳入同一交通网络,可以极大带动沿线房地产行业的发展和生产力的提高。”

        公司CEO罗布·劳埃德(Rob Lloyd)表示:“斯堪的纳维亚地区经济发达、人口流动量大、科技创新全球领先,是建成超级高铁网络的理想区域。很早之前,这一地区就走在了探索超级高铁交通的最前列。”报告显示,芬兰城市萨洛(Salo)也已签署意愿书,想要成为从赫尔辛基到斯德哥尔摩沿线的首座超级高铁城市。除客运之外,超级高铁网络还将用于运送货物。FS-Links公司的合作伙伴提出:“超级高铁无疑将成为21世纪的交通运输问题的出路,不仅对波罗的海区域,对整个欧洲都是如此。研究中的数据不会说谎,它显示,所有参与其中的城市与地区都将从中获益。”

  公司另一位合伙人霍尔姆斯特伦(Hans Mikael Holmstrom)也补充道:“我们想将两国的首都和其他城市连接在一起,建立起高生产率的城市区域,也就是所谓的‘超级特区’。”

目前瑞典铁路(高铁)客货列车车型一览

X1


X2

X2K

X2N


X2NK


X2P


X2-UA2K


X2-UA2X


X2-UB2K


X2-UB2NX


X2-UB2NXK


X2-UB2X


X2-UB2XK


X2-URB2KA


X3(阿兰达机场-斯德哥尔摩市中心)


Arlanda Express was one of the first new privately owned operators. Company operates  a fleet of 7 Precoradia EMUs painted with bright colors. Traffic has been very successful with extreme customer service quality focus.

Units built for Arlanda Express: 7, 1998 - 1999
Unit numbers: 1 - 7
Maximum allowed speed: 200 km/h (125 mph)
Capacity: 228 in one class
Electrical systems: overhead el. 15kV 16,7 Hz, 2240 kW (3046 hp)
Usage:  Stockholm Arlanda airport - Stockholm's center

X3P


X4P


X7P


X9


X10

Older Stockholm EMUs are of type X10. Here an active unit is seen during a rush hour in Solna.

Units built by ASEA: 52
Unit numbers in range: 3105 - 3189, 3198-3213
Maximum allowed speed: 140 km/h (87 mph)
Capacity: 180 seats in second class
Electrical systems: overhead el. 15kV 16,7 Hz, 1280 kW (1715 hp)
Usage: Stockholm local traffic during rush hours 

X10P


On the northern edge of the Stockholm is a 65 kilometer network of narrow 891 mm gauge track. Here some unusual rolling stock can still be found. Each unit consists some of following: X10p motor coach + middle coach(es) UBp + driving trailer UBxp

Units built by ABB: 35
Unit numbers in range: 201 - 235
Maximum allowed speed: 80 km/h (50 mph)
Capacity: 72 + seats in second class
Electrical systems: overhead el. DC 1500 V, 400 kW (540 hp)
Usage: Stockholm local traffic  

X11

To cover for the winter production failures of the X62 four X11s of Skånetrafik were acquired.

Units built by ASEA: 49, 4 used by NT
Unit numbers: 3112, 3167, 3189 + 1
Maximum allowed speed: 140 km/h (112 mph)
Capacity: 178
Electrical systems: overhead el. 15kV 16,7 Hz, DC 1280 kW (1720 hp)
Usage: Swedish northern regional traffic 

X12

X14

X20


X21


X22


X23


X31K


X32K


X40-3300


X40-3700


Already a classic SJ train the X40 EMUs are regularly seen running main regional routes in middle Sweden. 

Units built by Alstom: 43 + 1
Maximum allowed speed: 200 km/h (125 mph) 
Capacity: 261 / 309 in one class 
Electrical systems: overhead electricity 15 kV 16,7 Hz, 1600/2400 kW (2100/3200 hp)
Usage:  SJ greater volumes regional service 

X50-3200


X50-9000

X50-UB50


The X50 series are form the most successful family of EMUs in Sweden. Built by Bombardier transportation the series has been sold to numerous local operators. For the manufacturer the X50 seems to be the train to make more and more advanced with time.

One of the studies was done with an EMU speed record breaking (for Sweden) unit "Green EMU" below left.     

X51

X52-0000


X52-3200

X52-9000

Well working X52 train sets are also part of Norrtågets leased fleet.  

Units leased by Norrtåg: 3
Unit numbers: 9034, 9042, 9062
Maximum allowed speed: 180 km/h (112 mph)
Capacity: 148 seats in second class
Electrical systems: overhead el. 15 kV 16,7 Hz, 1590 kW (2130 hp), AC drive
Usage: Umeå, Luleå, Kiruna regional traffic 


UL of Upplands also has several X52 units for its traffic south, northeast and north of Uppsala.

Units built by Bombardier: unknown
Unit numbers in range: 90xx
Maximum allowed speed: 180 km/h (112 mph)
Capacity: 148 seats in second class
Electrical systems: overhead el. 15 kV 16,7 Hz, 1590 kW (2130 hp), AC drive
Usage: Upplands regional traffic 


Xtåget runs mostly north of Gävle using Regina X52-3 and three module units.

Units built by Bombardier: unknown
Unit numbers in range: 9061
Maximum allowed speed: 180 km/h (112 mph)
Capacity: 148 seats in second class
Electrical systems: overhead el. 15 kV 16,7 Hz, 1590 kW (2130 hp), AC drive
Usage: Gävle regional traffic 

X53

X54


X55-3300


X55-3700


The newest investment to the proud SJ passenger EMU fleet the X55 (SJ calls these SJ3000) serve main routes north of Stockholm and in the West coast.  

Units built by Bombardier: 20, 4 modules per train
Unit numbers: 3344 - 3763 (each module numbered)
Maximum allowed speed: 200 km/h (125 mph)
Capacity: 240 in one class
Electrical systems: overhead electricity 15 kV 16,7 Hz, 3180 kW (4265 hp), 243 kN
Usage:  SJ Intercity service 

X55-URB55

X60


X60-6000~6080

Large capacity Stockholm local trains that you can alsways see while visiting the city.

Units built by Alstom: 129
Unit numbers: 6001- 6129
Maximum allowed speed: 160 km/h (99 mph)
Capacity: 374 seats in one class
Electrical systems: overhead el. 15kV 16,7 Hz, 3000 kW (4025 hp)
Usage: Stockholm local traffic 

X61

X61 and X62 are closely related, except for the top speed.

Units built by Alstom: 110, not all to Skånetrafik
Unit numbers: 001 - 067 -
Maximum allowed speed: 160 km/h (99 mph)
Capacity: 234 in one class  
Electrical systems: overhead el. 15kV 16,7 Hz, 2000 kW (2680 hp)
Usage: Swedish regional traffic 

X61-000


X61-200


X61-300


X62

X74


FLIRT3 trains are newcomers in Sweden.  6 new handsomely red EMUs have been in regular traffic between Stockholm and Gothenburg since 2015.

Units built for MTR: 6, 2014 - 2015
Unit numbers: X74 001 - X74 006
Maximum allowed speed: 200 km/h (125 mph)
Capacity: 244 in one class
Electrical systems: overhead el. 15kV 16,7 Hz, 4500 kW (6035 hp)
Usage: express long distance traffic Stockholm - Gothenburg

X420


Y1

Y2

Y31

Y32


YF1


Bm92


Bm73b


Bm73b can be found on many long distance routes including the occasional destinations from Norway to Sweden. This interestingly designed EMU of NSB seems to be very popular in front of cameras of many rail pros and railfans.

Units built:  6,  built in 2001, refurbished 2015-16   
Unit numbers: 73041/841/241/141 - 73046/846/246/146
Maximum  allowed speed: 210  km/h (130 mph)  
Electrical  systems: all 15kV 16,7 Hz, 2650 kW (3555 hp), 156 kN
Usage: Norwegian and international passenger service 

141

Though modern, only 3 this kind of locomotives were built by Siemens AG. Now these are all part of the HectorRail active fleet.

Units built: 3    
Unit numbers: 141 001 - 003
Maximum  current reg. speed: 160  km/h (99 mph)  
Electrical  systems: AC 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Swedish and Norwegian freight, Swedish Veolia passenger services

142


The HectorRail bought from ÖBB surplus class 1144 locos for its freights in 2006 - 2011.

Units bought: 12    
Unit numbers: 142 001 - 212
Power: 4000 kW (5364 Hp), 260 kN  
Maximum  current reg. speed: 150  km/h (93 mph)  
Electrical  systems: AC 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Swedish heavy freight

143


HectorRail has pirchased 13 of these locomotives from the SJ surplus auction in Sweden.

Units bought: 13    
Unit numbers: 143 001 - 013
Power: 3600 kW (4830 Hp), 235 kN
Maximum  allowed speed: 160  km/h (99 mph)  
Electrical  systems: AC 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Swedish passenger services and switching 

161


These heavy Co'Co' locomotives originate to Malmbanan, where they were used for ore transportation before IOREs.

Units bought (and built by ASEA): 6, 3 in use    
Unit numbers: 161.101 - 161.106
Power: 5400 kW (7242 Hp), 420 kN
Maximum  current reg. speed: 120  km/h (75 mph)  
Electrical  systems: AC 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Swedish heavy freight

162


The ex. DB class 151 is the latest six axle acquisition of the HectorRail for its impressive heavy haul fleet.

Units bought from DB: 10    
Unit numbers: 
Power: 5982 kW (8022 Hp), 395 kN
Maximum  current reg. speed: 120  km/h (75 mph)  
Electrical  systems: AC 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Heavy freight mostly in Germany 


193


241


HectorRail also owns some typical TRAXX2 locomotives, the number of which has been steadily rising.

Units bought: 12 (TRAXX F140 AC2)    
Unit numbers: 241.001 - 241.012
Power: 5600 kW (7509 Hp), 300 kN
Maximum  current reg. speed: 140  km/h (87 mph)  
Electrical  systems: AC 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Swedish international freight

242


Ever popular Taurus locomotives are also part of the HectorRail fleet. This is a powerful true multipurpose workhorse for HectorRail in Sweden and Germany.

Units bought: 5 (ES64U2 Taurus)     
Unit numbers: 242.503 - 242.532
Power: 6400 kW (8580 Hp), 300 kN
Maximum  current reg. speed: 230  km/h (143 mph)  
Electrical  systems: AC 15kV 16,7 Hz, 25 kV 50 Hz
Usage: Swedish multipurpose traffic, German freight

441


Powerful and rugged, the Eurosprinter fits well to the HectorRail heavy haul fleet.
Units in use:  2 for the operator   
Unit numbers: 441 001 and 441 002
Maximum  allowed speed: 140 km/h (87 mph)  
Electrical  systems: overhead electricity,  25 kV 50 Hz, 15kV 16,67 Hz AC, 1500  V DC, 3000 V DC 
Usage: Norwegian and Swedish international freight 

Da


Dm


Both personnel and railfans like this personal triple locomotive, all are now retired from everyday use.

Units built:  76 end modules and 19 middle ones 
Unit numbers: 
Maximum  allowed speed: 75 km/h (47 mph)  
Electrical  systems: all 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Norwegian and Swedish ore traffic, most retired 

EI16


EI18


Part of the Swiss LOK2000 program fleet, the El18 have served operator NSB well. It looks like many are currently assigned to Intercity and sleeper trains.  

Units built:  22,  built in 1996 - 1997    
Unit numbers: 18 2241 - 18 2262
Maximum  allowed speed: 200  km/h (124 mph)  
Electrical  systems: all 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Mixed Norwegian and Swedish traffic     

IORE


IOREs are the strongest electric locomotives in the whole Europe, and also obviously best for coping with the harsh arctic climate.

Units built:  26 (+ 6 in order), 2000 - 2014    
Unit numbers: 101 - 126, 91 74 0000 101-X S-MTAB
Maximum  allowed speed: 80  km/h (50 mph)  
Electrical  systems: all 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Norwegian and Swedish ore traffic 

Ma


Class Ma has recently been retired, even the last of it, but you might see these colorful ex. TGOJ unit running or parked for third hand operators and museums now.

Units:  sold away or scrapped    
Unit numbers: 4 (41 were built)
Power: 3960 kW (5310 Hp), 375 kN
Maximum  allowed speed: 100  km/h (62 mph)  
Electrical  systems: AC 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Swedish freight 

Ra


Ra can be seen here and there in museums, parked and occasionally even in use.

Units:   a few   
Unit numbers: Ra "Rapid 1 - 10(?)"
Power: 2640 kW (3540 Hp), 200 kN
Maximum  allowed speed: 150  km/h (93 mph)  
Electrical  systems: AC 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Swedish museum use

Rc1


First Rc locomotive class the Rc1 is now slowly being phased out the remaining locomotives receiving spares from their sister locos.

Units:  over ten remaining    
Unit numbers: Rc1 1007 - 1026
Power: 3600 kW (4830 Hp), 275 kN
Maximum  allowed speed: 135  km/h (84 mph)  
Electrical  systems: AC 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Swedish freight 

Rc2


Reimported to Sweden from Austria these locomotives serve mainly Infranord work trains.

Units for the operator:  3   
Unit numbers: ELL 0001R - 0003R
Power: 3600 kW (4830 Hp), 260 kN
Maximum  allowed speed: 135  km/h (84 mph)  
Electrical  systems: AC 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Swedish work trains 

Rc3

The Asea built Rc3 locomotives add to the capacity of SJ. As older rolling stock there are some plans to withdraw these and sell the units to Green Cargo for rebuilding.

Units built:  <25    
Unit numbers: Rc3 1027 - 1067
Power: 3600 kW (4830 Hp), 235 kN
Maximum  allowed speed: 160  km/h (99 mph)  
Electrical  systems: AC 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Swedish passenger services and switching

Rc4

Rc4P


The Green Cargo main fleet consists of numerous Rc4 and Rc4P locomotives, which run freights in Sweden and Norway. Rc4P can run 160 km/h instead of 135 km/h and is used on postal trains. Nowadays Rc4 is also a popular switcher locomotive (despite the visibility) for Green Cargo.

Units built:  130, 8 were sold to Nordic Re-Finanace in 2015   
Unit numbers: Rc4/Rc4P 1137 - 1322
Power: 3600 kW (4830 Hp), 290 kN
Maximum  allowed speed:
-- Rc4:  135  km/h (84 mph)
-- Rc4P: 160 km/h (100 mph)   
Electrical  systems: AC 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Swedish and Norwegian freight 

Rc5


Rc6

The Main locomotive fleet for SJ consist of Rc6 locomotives painted shiny black. This is a common sight in most tracks of Sweden.

Units built:  60   
Unit numbers: Rc6 1337 - 1422
Power: 3600 kW (4830 Hp), 250 kN
Maximum  allowed speed: 160  km/h (99 mph)  
Electrical  systems: AC 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Swedish passenger services

Rd2

Rd2

Some things only "get more efficient with time", like the Rd2 fleet rebuilt by Bombardier from  Green Cargo Rc2s.

Units rebuilt by Bombardier:  79   
Unit numbers: Rd2 1028 ... 1136
Power: 3600 kW (4830 Hp), 4 x 900 kW, 250 kN
Maximum  allowed speed: 135  km/h (84 mph)  
Electrical  systems: overhead el., AC 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Swedish and Norwegian freight

Re


This is a second generation version of TRAXX-locomotives family. Class Re locomotives were at first used mainly on the heavy steel slab trains on Malmbana and south of it to Borlänge. The fleet is now in lighter use class Rc4 having replaced them.

Units built: 16 for the operator    
Unit numbers: Re 1423 - 1438
Power: 5600 kW (7510 Hp), 300 kN
Maximum  allowed speed: 140  km/h (87 mph)  
Electrical  systems: AC 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Swedish and Norwegian freight 

Rm


Manufactured simultaneously with class Rc4, the Rm were assigned much heavier axle weight, lower speeds and automatic couplers for Malmbana, where the locomotives are now returning.

Units built:  6 in 1977  
Unit numbers: Rm 1257 - 1262
Power: 3600 kW (4830 Hp), 314 kN
Maximum  allowed speed: 100  km/h (62 mph)  
Electrical  systems: AC 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: Swedish and Norwegian freight.
最瑞典 
Here is Sweden

你坐过那种车型的瑞典火车?